主詞:用藍色

文法上主要動詞:用紅色

意義上主要動詞(如果不同於文法上主要動詞):用綠色

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11.1 Introduction

 

1. In this chapter we examine three different applications, all concerned with using and managing data, (that might be of interest to a hypothetical small business, the Huli Huli Pineapple and Papaya Company).

l         Complex sentence. Dependent clause = (that might … Company)

l         S+V: we examine

l         we examine three different applications

l         In this chapter we examine three different applications

l         In this chapter we examine three different applications that might be of interest

l         In this chapter we examine three different applications that might be of interest to a small business

l         In this chapter we examine three different applications that might be of interest to a hypothetical small business

l         In this chapter we examine three different applications that might be of interest to a hypothetical small business, the Huli Huli Pineapple and Papaya Company

l         In this chapter we examine three different applications, all concerned with using and managing data, that might be of interest to a hypothetical small business, the Huli Huli Pineapple and Papaya Company.

 

2. These applications are spreadsheets, databases, symbolic and numeric computation.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: applications are

l         These applications are spreadsheets, databases, symbolic and numeric computation.

 

3. Each application is possible because of advances (that have taken place in computer hardware and software.)

l         Complex sentence.

l         S+V: application is

l         application is possible

l         Each application is possible

l         Each application is possible because of advances

l         Each application is possible because of advances that have taken place

l         Each application is possible because of advances that have taken place in computer hardware and software.

 

4. (Although we use a small business context to present these applications,) they are equally useful, in various forms, for individuals and for multinational corporations.

l         Complex sentence.

l         S+V: they are

l         they are useful

l         they are useful for individuals and for multinational corporations.

l         they are equally useful for individuals and for multinational corporations.

l         they are equally useful, in various forms, for individuals and for multinational corporations.

l         Although we use a small business context to present these applications, they are equally useful, in various forms, for individuals and for multinational corporations.

 

11.2 Spreadsheets

 

5. An electronic spreadsheet combines elements of a calculator, a word processor, a database manager, a graphing tools, a modeling and forecasting tool, and an accountant’s ledger.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: spreadsheet combines

l         An electronic spreadsheet combines

l         An electronic spreadsheet combines elements

l         An electronic spreadsheet combines elements of a calculator, a word processor, a database manager, a graphing tools, a modeling and forecasting tool, and an accountant’s ledger.

 

6. The first spreadsheets software, VisiCalc, developed in 1979, was modeled after the traditional accountant’s ledgerbook or spreadsheet.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: software was modeled

l         The first spreadsheets software was modeled

l         The first spreadsheets software was modeled after the ledgerbook

l         The first spreadsheets software was modeled after the traditional accountant’s ledgerbook

l         The first spreadsheets software was modeled after the traditional accountant’s ledgerbook or spreadsheet.

l         The first spreadsheets software, VisiCalc, was modeled after the traditional accountant’s ledgerbook or spreadsheet.

l         The first spreadsheets software, VisiCalc, developed in 1979,was modeled after the traditional accountant’s ledgerbook or spreadsheet.

 

7. But the advantages of an electronic spreadsheet soon became apparent, and this single software package was a principal motivator in the growth of microcomputer use.

l         Compound sentence.

l         S+V of the first clause: advantages became

l         advantages became apparent

l         the advantages of an electronic spreadsheet became apparent

l         But the advantages of an electronic spreadsheet soon became apparent,

l         S+V of the second clause: package was

l         package was a motivator

l         this single software package was a motivator

l         this single software package was a motivator in the growth of microcomputer use.

l         and this single software package was a principal motivator in the growth of microcomputer use.

 

8. Today, spreadsheets are one of the most widely used software packages, and they continue to incorporate increasing capabilities.

l         Compound sentence.

l         S+V of the first clause: spreadsheets are

l         spreadsheets are one of the software packages,

l         spreadsheets are one of the most widely used software packages,

l         Today, spreadsheets are one of the most widely used software packages,

l         S+V of the second clause: they continue

l         they continue to incorporate capabilities.

l         they continue to incorporate increasing capabilities.

l         and they continue to incorporate increasing capabilities.

 

9. Spreadsheets are of value to individual homeowners and investors, business planners, scientists, economists, teachers, and anyone (who has text and numeric information to organize, manipulate, or display.)

l         Complex sentence

l         S+V: Spreadsheets are

l         Spreadsheets are of value

l         Spreadsheets are of value to individual homeowners and investors, business planners, scientists, economists, teachers, and anyone

l         Spreadsheets are of value to individual homeowners and investors, business planners, scientists, economists, teachers, and anyone who has text and numeric information to organize, manipulate, or display.

 

10. An empty spreadsheet contains a two-dimensional grid of cells.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: spreadsheet contains

l         spreadsheet contains a grid of cells.

l         An empty spreadsheet contains a grid of cells.

l         An empty spreadsheet contains a two-dimensional grid of cells.

 

11. The rows are labeled by numbers 1, 2, 3, …, and the columns are labeled by letters A through Z, then AA, AB, and so on.

l         Compound sentence

l         S+V of the first clause: rows are labeled

l         The rows are labeled by numbers 1, 2, 3, …,

l         S+V of the second clause: columns are labeled

l         the columns are labeled by letters A through Z

l         and the columns are labeled by letters A through Z, then AA, AB, and so on.

 

12. Giving a column letter and a row number identifies a particular cell in the grid.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: It (主詞為一個動名詞帶頭的名詞片語,可用 It 暫時取代) identifies

l         It identifies a particular cell

l         It identifies a particular cell in the grid

l         Giving a column letter and a row number identifies a particular cell in the grid.

 

13. On some systems, cells, or blocks of cells, can also be named and referred to by name.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: cells can be named

l         cells can be named and referred to

l         cells can be named and referred to by name.

l         On some systems, cells can be named and referred to by name.

l         On some systems, cells, or blocks of cells, can also be named and referred to by name.

 

14. The dimensions of the grid are defined by the software package but are usually in the range of thousands of rows and a few hundred columns.

l         Compound sentence

l         S+V of the first clause: dimensions are defined

l         dimensions are defined by the software package

l         The dimensions of the grid are defined by the software package

l         S+V of the second clause: (the dimensions of the grid) are

l         (the dimensions of the grid) are in the range

l         (the dimensions of the grid) are in the range of thousands of rows and a few hundred columns.

l         but (the dimensions of the grid) are in the range of thousands of rows and a few hundred columns.

 

15. Only a portion of the grid, called a window, is visible at any one time on the screen.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: portion is

l         portion is visible

l         portion is visible at any one time

l         portion is visible at any one time on the screen.

l         a portion of the grid is visible at any one time on the screen.

l         Only a portion of the grid is visible at any one time on the screen.

l         Only a portion of the grid, called a window, is visible at any one time on the screen.

 

16. The user may scroll (move) the window through the grid to make different parts visible.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: user may scroll

l         The user may scroll the window

l         The user may scroll the window through the grid

l         The user may scroll the window through the grid to make parts visible.

l         The user may scroll the window through the grid to make different parts visible.

 

17. The user can also adjust the width of any column in the grid.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: user can adjust

l         The user can adjust the width

l         The user can adjust the width of any column

l         The user can adjust the width of any column in the grid.

l         The user can also adjust the width of any column in the grid.

 

18. Initially, the window is always located in the upper left corner of the grid, at the beginning of the letter-number cell identification system (cell A1).

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: window is located

l         the window is located in the upper left corner

l         the window is located in the upper left corner of the grid,

l         Initially, the window is always located in the upper left corner of the grid,

l         Initially, the window is always located in the upper left corner of the grid, at the beginning of the letter-number cell identification system (cell A1).

 

19. Figure 11.1 shows a window in an empty spreadsheet, with cell D2 shaded.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: Figure 11.1 shows

l         Figure 11.1 shows a window

l         Figure 11.1 shows a window in an empty spreadsheet,

l         Figure 11.1 shows a window in an empty spreadsheet, with cell D2 shaded.

 

20. The user generally selects a certain cell to be “active” by using a mouse, the tab key, or the arrow keys to move a cursor (marker) to the desired cell.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: user selects

l         user selects a certain cell

l         user selects a certain cell to be “active”

l         user selects a certain cell to be “active” by using a mouse

l         user selects a certain cell to be “active” by using a mouse to move a cursor

l         user selects a certain cell to be “active” by using a mouse to move a cursor to the desired cell.

l         The user generally selects a certain cell to be “active” by using a mouse, the tab key, or the arrow keys to move a cursor (marker) to the desired cell.

 

21. Three kinds of information can be stored in a spreadsheet cell.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: kinds can be stored

l         kinds can be stored in a spreadsheet cell.

l         Three kinds of information can be stored in a spreadsheet cell.

 

22. A cell can contain text information, also called a label, (which appears on the screen in that cell).

l         Complex sentence

l         S+V: cell can contain

l         A cell can contain text information

l         A cell can contain text information which appears on the screen

l         A cell can contain text information which appears on the screen in that cell.

l         A cell can contain text information, also called a label, which appears on the screen in that cell.

 

23. Text information is used at the top of a column to label the data appearing in that column, or at the left of a row to label data in that row.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: information is used

l         Text information is used at the top of a column

l         Text information is used at the top of a column to label the data

l         Text information is used at the top of a column to label the data appearing in that column,

l         Text information is used at the top of a column to label the data appearing in that column, or at the left of a row to label data in that row.

 

24. Text can also be used to label any single cell.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: Text can be used

l         Text can be used to label any single cell.

l         Text can also be used to label any single cell.

 

25. Text information may be longer than the standard-sized cell, so the column size is frequently expanded to accommodate text information.

l         Compound sentence

l         S+V of the first clause: information may be

l         Text information may be longer

l         Text information may be longer than the standard-sized cell,

l         S+V of the second clause: size is expanded

l         the column size is expanded to accommodate text information.

l         so the column size is frequently expanded to accommodate text information.

 

26. The user can use formatting commands to direct (how the text will be displayed), including (whether it is to be centered or right- or left-justified within the cell); (what the type font and size are to be); and (whether certain words should be boldface or italic).

l         Complex sentence

l         S+V: user can use

l         The user can use formatting commands

l         The user can use formatting commands to direct

l         The user can use formatting commands to direct how the text will be displayed,

l         The user can use formatting commands to direct how the text will be displayed, including A; B; and C.

l         A = whether it is to be centered or right- or left-justified within the cell

l         B = what the type font and size are to be

l         C = whether certain words should be boldface or italic

 

27. In Figure 11.2, cells A1, B1, and C1 contain labels.

l         Simple sentence

l         S+V: cells contain

l         cells A1, B1, and C1 contain labels.

l         In Figure 11.2, cells A1, B1, and C1 contain labels.

 

28. The second kind of information (that a cell can contain) is a numeric value.

l         Complex sentence

l         S+V: kind is

l         The second kind of information is

l         The second kind of information is a numeric value.

l         The second kind of information that a cell can contain is a numeric value.

 

29. Numeric values also appear on the screen, and, as with text, the user can choose the format (in which the number will be displayed).

l         Compound-complex sentence

l         S+V of the first clause: values appear

l         values appear on the screen

l         Numeric values also appear on the screen

l         S+V of the second clause: user can choose

l         user can choose the format

l         the user can choose the format in which the number will be displayed.

l         as with text, the user can choose the format in which the number will be displayed.

l         and, as with text, the user can choose the format in which the number will be displayed.