Original sentence:

The term “discrete mathematics” is used broadly to describe the kind of mathematics in which properties such as nearness and smoothness – the key ideas of calculus – are not at issue.

 

先瀏覽一遍大略分出句型:子句、動詞、主詞…

The term “discrete mathematics” is used broadly to describe the kind of mathematics (in which properties such as nearness and smoothness (– the key ideas of calculus –) are not at issue).

 

Type of sentence: complex

S+V: term is used

中:名辭被用來

 

那一個名辭?discrete mathematics

英:The term “discrete mathematics” is used

中:離散數學此一名辭被用來

 

被用來做什麼?to describe

英:The term “discrete mathematics” is used to describe

中:離散數學此一名辭被用來描述

 

如何用?broadly

英:The term “discrete mathematics” is used broadly to describe

中:離散數學此一名辭被廣泛地用來描述

 

描述什麼?

英:The term “discrete mathematics” is used to describe the kind of mathematics

中:離散數學此一名辭被被廣泛地用來描述一類數學

 

那一類數學呢?用一子句說明

Properties such as nearness and smoothness – the key ideas of calculus – are not at issue in this kind of mathematics.

 

S+V: properties are not

中:一些性質不是

 

不是如何?at issue

英:properties are not at issue

中:一些性質不在討論範圍之內

 

什麼的討論範圍?in this kind of mathematics

英:properties are not at issue in this kind of mathematics

中:一些性質不在此類數學的討論範圍之內

 

那些性質?給點例子吧!such as nearness and smoothness

英:properties such as nearness and smoothness are not at issue in this kind of mathematics

中:一些性質,例如逼進和平滑等,不在此類數學的討論範圍之內

 

逼進和平滑等性質是什麼?– the key ideas of calculus –

英:properties such as nearness and smoothness – the key ideas of calculus – are not at issue in this kind of mathematics

中:一些性質,例如逼進和平滑等微積分的基本觀念,不在此類數學的討論範圍之內

 

全句:離散數學此一名辭被被廣泛地用來描述某一類數學,一些如逼進和平滑等微積分基本觀念的性質,不在此類數學的討論範圍之內。

 

 

Original sentence:

In this book the term means the basic non-calculus mathematics a computer science student needs.

 

先瀏覽一遍大略分出句型:子句、動詞、主詞…

In this book the term means the basic non-calculus mathematics ((that) a computer science student needs).

 

Type of sentence: complex

S+V: term means

中:名辭指的是

 

指的是什麼?mathematics

英:the term means mathematics

中:名辭指的是數學

 

什麼樣的數學?the basic non-calculus

英:the term means the basic non-calculus mathematics

中:此名辭指的是基本的非微積分數學

 

在何處?In this book

英:In this book the term means mathematics

中:在本書中此名辭指的是基本的非微積分數學

 

再用一子句說明這種數學,注意省略了一個that

A computer science student needs the basic non-calculus mathematics (=that)

 

S+V: student needs

學生需要

 

什麼樣的學生?A computer science

英:A computer science student needs

中:一個計算機科學(即資工)學生需要

 

需要什麼?the basic non-calculus mathematics

英:A computer science student needs the basic non-calculus mathematics

中:一個資工學生需要基本的非微積分數學

 

全句:在本書中,此名辭指的是一個資工學生需要的基礎非微積分數學。

 

 

Original sentence:

Although we do draw on computer science for motivation, we assume no previous experience in the subject.

 

先瀏覽一遍大略分出句型:子句、動詞、主詞…

(Although we do draw on computer science for motivation,) we assume no previous experience in the subject.

 

Type of sentence: complex

S+V: we assume

中:我們假設

 

假設什麼?no previous experience

英:we assume no previous experience

中:我們假設學生有任何先前的經驗

 

那方面的經驗?in the subject

英:we assume no previous experience in the subject

中:我們不假設在此主題上學生有任何先前的經驗

 

此句有一dependent clause,分開解釋:

Although we do draw on computer science for motivation

 

S+V: we do draw on

中:我們的確向

 

向那裡?computer science

英:we do draw on computer science

中:我們的確向資工

 

向資工尋求什麼?for motivation

英:we do draw on computer science for motivation

中:我們的確向資工尋求學習動機

 

最後加上Although,全句為:

雖然我們的確向資工領域尋求學習動機,但我們不假設學生曾有任何資工方面的經驗。

 

 

 

Original sentence:

When it is necessary to discuss an application such as logical circuit design in some detail, we provide the needed background, but otherwise we have avoided including topics which are more properly taught in courses in computer science.

 

先瀏覽一遍大略分出句型:子句、動詞、主詞…

(When it is necessary to discuss an application such as logical circuit design in some detail,) we provide the needed background, but otherwise we have avoided including topics (which are more properly taught in courses in computer science).

 

Type of sentence: compound-complex, 有兩個用but 連接的獨立子句,也有附屬子句

 

上半句:(When it is necessary to discuss an application such as logical circuit design in some detail,) we provide the needed background

S+V: we provide

中:我們提供

 

提供什麼?the needed background

英:we provide the needed background

中:我們提供必要的背景知識

 

子句:When it is necessary to discuss an application such as logical circuit design in some detail

S+V: it is

中:它是

 

是什麼?necessary

英:it is necessary

中:它是必要的

 

什麼是必要的?to discuss an application in some detail

英:it is necessary to discuss an application in some detail

中:詳細討論一項應用是有必要的

 

有例子嗎?such as logical circuit design

英:it is necessary to discuss an application such as logical circuit design in some detail

中:詳細討論一項應用,例如邏輯電路設計,是有必要的

 

上半句全部:當有必要的詳細討論一項應用,例如邏輯電路設計時,我們會提供必要的背景知識

 

下半句:but otherwise we have avoided including topics (which are more properly taught in courses in computer science)

S+V: we have avoided

中:我們避免了

 

避免什麼?including topics

英:we have avoided including topics

中:我們避免納入一些主題

 

什麼樣的主題?用一子句說明:

topics are more properly taught in courses in computer science.

 

S+V: topics are taught

中:主題被教

 

怎樣教法?more properly

英:topics are more properly taught

中:主題被更合適地

 

在那裡教?in courses in computer science

英:topics are more properly taught in courses in computer science

中:主題被更合適地在資工專業課程中

 

下半句全部:但否則的話我們避免納入一些更合適在資工專業課程中教授的主題

 

全句:當有必要的詳細討論一項應用,例如邏輯電路設計時,我們會提供必要的背景知識;但否則的話我們避免納入一些更合適在資工專業課程中教授的主題。

 

第四題全部:

離散數學一辭被被廣泛地用來描述某一類數學,此類數學不涉及一些如逼進和平滑等微積分基本觀念。本書用此名辭指一個資工學生需要的基礎非微積分數學。雖然我們的確向資工領域尋求學習動機,但我們不假設學生曾有任何資工方面的經驗。當需要詳細討論某一項應用例如邏輯電路設計時,我們會提供必要的背景知識;但否則的話我們避免納入一些更合適在資工專業課程中教授的主題。